The Family MURICIDAE encompass a diverse and distinct group of worldwide mollusks. Generically referred to as Murex, the Family actually consists of eight Subfamiles (see below), which are then further subdivided into more than 90 genera. The group has been extensively studied by the scientific community, leading to more newly discovered and described Murex in the past 20 years than any other molluscan Family. This prompted one researcher to publish a compilation of the Muricidae species described since 1971 to aid researchers and collectors in sorting out the huge number of species not included in the more popular literature (see below). The intricately spiny, rugose, or lamellate sculpture of the Murex have a broad appeal with collectors. One of the peculiar, yet highly appealing characteristics of a number of Muricid genera is the variability of color. Some species can be found in a broad range of colors, which makes for an outstanding display. The ecology of Murex is equally diverse. They inhabit a wide range of ocean environments, from rocky shorelines, to deep subtidal regions of the ocean. The Murex are sometimes referred to as rock shells due to the rocky habitat where some species are found, but Murex also inhabit muddy, or coarse sand substrates, especially the deeper water species. The Muricidae are by far one of the more appealing of the molluscan groups.

LITERATURE: There is no lack of Murex literature available, though many of the important titles are in the form of scientific papers. The list is too extensive to include here, but at least a handful are recommended for the collector. A select group of important titles are listed in the literature box below. · Molluscan monographs with a geographical focus will also provide important resources for Murex identification.

Ceratostoma eurypteron
Pterynotus bibbeyi

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Phylum: MOLLUSCA (Linné, 1758) Cuvier, 1795

Class: GASTROPODA Cuvier, 1797

Subclass: PROSOBRANCHIA Milne Edwards, 1848


Suborder: NEOGASTROPODA Thiele, 1929

      Superfamily: MURICOIDEA da Costa, 1776

Family: MURICIDAE da Costa, 1776

Highlight and click the classification term for a definition and additional information.
REFERENCE: Millard, V.G., 1997. Classification of Mollusca. South Africa.

Subfamily: MURICINAE



Subfamily: TYPHINAE




ADDITIONAL REFERENCE: Vokes, December 1996, Am.Conch.
Subfamily: MURICINAE back to menutop of page
ATTILIOSA Emerson, 1968   
Attiliosa Emerson, 1968. Type species (o.d.): Coralliophila icompta Berry, 1960 [= Attiliosa nodulosa (A. Adams, 1855)]; Vaught, 1989: 43; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 82; Houart, 1996: 15.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.138.
Attiliosa sp.Attiliosa bessei E.H. Vokes, 1999 - Honduras, 19mm - From Rosalind Bank in 120 feet of water. Ref.:  
CHICOMUREX Arakawa, 1964   
Chicomurex; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 75; Houart, 1994: 48.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.140.
Chicomurex problematicusChicomurex problematicus (Lan, 1981) - Philippines, 66-76mm - some consider C. problematicus to be a subspecies of C. superbus. Ref.: Chicomurex problematicusChicomurex problematicus (Lan, 1981) - Philippines - 87mm! - this specimen is 11mm over the listed 1999 world size record, or as we prefer to call it, largest recorded specimen. Ref.:
Chicomurex turschiChicomurex turschi (Houart, 1981) - Papua New Guinea, 32mm - rare species taken scuba diving prior to volcanic activity on New Britain. This specimen has beautiful coloring -- a species which often exhibits a muted tan/brown color. Ref.:    
CHICOREUS Montfort, 1810   
Chicoreus Montfort, 1810. Type species (o.d.): Murex ramosus Linne, 1758; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 72; Chicoracea Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834 (err.); Cichorium Voigt, 1834 (err.); Chicorax Pusch, 1837; Frondosaria Schlüter, 1838; Cichoreus Agassiz, 1846 (nom.nud.); Cichoraceus Herrmannsen, 1847 (em.); Cichoreum Paetel, 1875 (err.); Euphyllon Jousseaume, 1880; Pirtus de Gregorio, 1885; Torvamurex Iredale, 1936; Torramurex Salisbury, 1937 (err.); Foveomurex Wenz, 1941;  Subgenus: CHICOREUS s.s., Chicoreus (Chicoreus); Houart, 1994: 32;  Subgenus: CHICOPINNATUS Houart, 1992, Chicopinnatus Houart, 1992: 35. Type species (o.d.): Pterynotus orchidiflorus Shikama, 1972, Chicoreus (Chicopinnatus); Houart, 1994: 55; Subgenus: PHYLLONOTUS Swainson, 1833, Phyllonota Conrad, 1847 (err.), Phyconotus Simroth, 1907 (err.);  Subgenus: TRIPLEX Perry, 1810, Triplex Perry, 1810, Chicoreus (Triplex); Houart, 1994: 71;  Subgenus: SIRATUS Jousseaume, 1880, Chicoreus (Siratus); Vokes, 1990: 124-130.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.139.
Chicoreus austramosusChicoreus (C.) austramosus E.H.Vokes, 1978 - South Africa, 63mm - endemic to South Africa. Found uncommonly by scuba divers at depths of 25 to 35 meters of water. Ref.: Chicoreus bouchetiChicoreus (Triplex) boucheti Houart - New Caledonia, 26.7mm - taken by research vessel off New Caledonia, in 347-375mm of water. A rare endemic species, currently in the collection of Travis Payne. Ref.:
Chicoreus brevifronsChicoreus (Triplex) brevifrons (Lamarck, 1822) - Colombia, 99mm - an amazingly variable species found throughout the Caribbean. Described as Murex brevifrons. (re: Malacolog). Ref.: Chicoreus bundharmaiChicoreus (C.) bundharmai Houart, 1992 - Indonesia, 48mm - a rare trawled species with an extremely limited distribution, most closely associated with C. ramosus. There are significant differences in the spire ribbing, and other characteristics. Ref.: Chicoreus cloveriChicoreus (Triplex) cloveri Houart, 1985 - Mauritius, 22.1mm - a scarce endemic. Taken from deep water trap. Rarely if ever found in collections. Ref.:
Chicoreus cnissodusChicoreus (Triplex) cnissodus (Euthyme, 1889) - Philippines, 105mm - averages around 80-90mm. Moderately common from Japan and Taiwan, west to Sri Lanka. Ref.: Chicoreus corrugatusChicoreus (Triplex) corrugatus (Sowerby, 1841) - Egypt, 50mm - the typical long fronded form is restricted to the northern Red Sea. C. corrugatus ethiopius (Vokes, 1978) is a short-fronded form found in the southern Red Sea. Ref.: Chicoreus cosmaniChicoreus (Triplex) cosmani Abbott & Finlay, 1979 - Jamaica, 38-39mm - red-brown is the most pervasive color, though the original series collected scuba diving by Dieter Cosman in 1967 contains white and yellow specimens. The largest specimen is 79mm. A true rarity, endemic to Jamaica. (re: Malacolog). Ref.:
Chicoreus doviChicoreus (Triplex) dovi Houart, 1984 - Somalia, 97.5mm - an exceedingly dark specimen. Distribution is limited to East Africa. Most closely related to C. torrefactus, but differs in shell contour, aperture form and protoconch. Ref.: Chicoreus doviChicoreus (Triplex) dovi Houart, 1984 - Somalia, 117mm - This specimen greatly exceeds the listed recorded size for the species. It has been officially listed for future publication in the Hutsell & Pisor Molluscan World Record Sizes publication. Ref.: Chicoreus emilyaeChicoreus (Triplex) emilyae Petuch, 1987 - Honduras, 57-62mm - considered conspecific with Chicoreus florifer. (re: Malacolog). Ref.:
Chicoreus florifer dilectusChicoreus (Triplex) florifer dilectus (A.Adams, 1855) - Florida, 80mm - an exceptionally large specimen from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Taken scuba diving in 90 feet of water. C. dilectus is now considered a full species. (re: Malacolog). Ref.: Chicoreus microphyllusChicoreus (Triplex) microphyllus (Lamarck, 1816) - Madagascar, 76mm - the columellar dentition is characteristic. The columellar color can be orange, peach, or bluish-white. Ref.: Chicoreus orchidiflorisChicoreus (Chicopinnatus) orchidifloris (Shikama, 1973) - Philippines, 39mm - synonym: Pterynotus celinamarumai Kosuge, 1980, a name applied to specimens with a non-divided varical wing as illustrated here. Ref.:
Chicoreus orchidiflorisChicoreus (Chicopinnatus) orchidifloris (Shikama, 1973) - Philippines, 31mm - this form is considered the true form of the species; note the differences in the fronding from the previous image. Ref.: Chicoreus pelediChicoreus (Triplex) peledi Vokes, 1978 - Israel, 100.4mm - rare species limited to the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea around the Sinai Peninsula region. This specimen was collected at Eilat, between 20-35 meters of water. Ref.: Chicoreus (Phyllonotus) pomum mexicanusChicoreus (Phyllonotus) pomum (Gmelin, 1791), form: mexicanus (Petit, 1852) - Mexico, 92mm - dredged off Contoy, Yucatan. The Gulf of Mexico is the type locality of the form mexicanus. (re: Malacolog). Ref.:
Chicoreus pliciferoidesChicoreus (Siratus) pliciferoides (Kuroda, 1942) - Japan, 145mm - central Pacific distribution, typically brought up by fishing trawlers. Ref.: Chicoreus rossiteriChicoreus (Triplex) rossiteri (Crosse, 1872) - Philippines, 30mm - not to be confused with Chicoreus aculeatus. Ref.: Chicoreus rossiteriChicoreus (Triplex) rossiteri (Crosse, 1872) - Philippines, 57mm - a specimen with well-developed fronding. Ref.:
Chicoreus sauliiChicoreus (Triplex) saulii (Sowerby, 1834) - Philippines, 117mm - a large shell for the species. Ref.: Chicoreus subpalmatusChicoreus (Triplex) subpalmatus Houart, 1988 - New Caledonia, 27mm - an extremely rare species; trawled in very deep water off southern N.C. This shell won its owner First Place in the "Single Shell Worldwide Any Source" category at both the 1998 Sanibel and Marco Island shell shows. Ref.: Chicoreus thomasiChicoreus (Triplex) thomasi (Crosse, 1872) - Marquesas Islands, 54mm - an endemic species recently being found by divers, it is still rare in collections. This specimen was collected by J.P. Lefort in the early 1990's. Ref.:
Chicoreus vicdaniChicoreus (Siratus) vicdani (Kosuge, 1980) - Philippines, 41mm - a rare species taken in tangle nets set in deepwater in the central Philippines. Ref.:    
HAUSTELLUM Schumacher, 1817   
Haustellum Schumacher, 1817; Haustellum Deshayes, 1830 ? (pro Klein in Bruguière, 1792); Brontes Montfort, 1810 (non Fabricius, 1801); Brontesia Reichenbach, 1828 (err.); Brontis Griffith & Pidgeon, 1834 (err.); Bronta Pusch, 1837 (error pro Brontes); Haustellaria Swainson, 1833.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.139.
Haustellum cabritiiHaustellum cabritii (Bernardi, 1859) - Florida, 67-72mm - trawled by fishing boats. Originally described as Murex cabritii. (re: Malacolog). Ref.: Haustellum olssoniHaustellum olssoni (E.H.Vokes, 1967) - Colombia, 62mm - rare orange color form. Originally described as Murex olssoni. (re: Malacolog). Ref.:
HEXAPLEX Perry, 1811   
Hexaplex Perry, 1811. Type species (s.d. Jousseaume, 1880): Murex cichoreum Gmelin, 1791; Vaught, 1989: 43; Houart, 1994: 87; Le Renard, 1996: 66; Houart, 1996: 5; Purpura Röding, 1798 (non Bruguière, 1789); Exaplex Férussac, 1820 (err.); Muricanthus Swainson, 1840 (non Swainson, 1833) pro Centronotus Swainson, 1833 (non Schneider, 1801); Bassiella Wenz, 1941 pro Bassia Jousseaume, 1880 (non Quoy & Gaimard, 1830); Trunculariopsis Cossmann, 1921; Hexaplex (Trunculariopsis); Vaught, 1989: 43; Truncularia Monterosato, 1917 (non Wiegmann, 1832); Murithais Grant & Gale, 1931.  Subgenus: MURICANTHUS Swainson, 1833; Muricantha Fischer, 1884; Muricantha Swainson in Suter, 1913; Aaronia Verrill, 1950.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.140.
Hexaplex conatusHexaplex conatus (McMichael, 1964) - Western Australia, 67.5mm - very large for the species; just 5.2mm shy of the largest recorded specimen. Ref.: Hexaplex kusterianus bozzadamiiHexaplex kusterianus bozzadamii (Franchi, 1990) - Somalia, 95mm - trawled in deep water; a rare subspecies, which exhibits variable fronding. Ref.:
HOMALOCANTHA Mörch, 1852   
Homalocantha Mörch, 1852. Type species (monotypy): Murex scorpio Linnaeus, 1758; Vaught, 1989: 43; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 80; Houart, 1994: 44; Houart, 1996: 16; Homalacantha Kobelt, 1877 (err.); Homolocantha Ludbrook, 1958 (err.).
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.140.
Homalocantha anomaliaeHomalocantha anomaliae Kosuge, 1979 - Philippines, 41mm - a fragile species taken in tangle nets set in deep water. Ref.: Homalocantha melanamathos chiniiHomalocantha melanamathos (Gmelin, 1791), form: chinii Biraghi, 1984 - Congo, 43mm - an exceptionally spiny form. Ref.:
MUREX Linné, 1758   
Murex Linneaus, 1758; Vaught, 1989: 43; Le Renard, 1996: 66; Purpura Martini, 1777 (non-bin.); Aranea Perry, 1810 (non Linnaeus, 1758); Tribulus Kobelt, 1877 (non H. & A. Adams in Klein, 1853); Acupurpura Jousseaume, 1880; Tubicauda Jousseaume, 1880.  Subgenus: MUREX s.s.; Murex (Murex); Houart, 1994: 29.  Subgenus: PROMUREX Ponder & Vokes, 1988; Promurex Vokes & Ponder, 1988: 83. Type species (o.d.): Murex antelmei Viader, 1938; Houart, 1994: 8.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.138.
Murex coppingeriMurex coppingeri E.A. Smith, 1884 - North Territory, Australia, 55-59mm - limited range along northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. One of the distinctive Murex species with a long shoulder spine. Ref.: Murex pectenMurex pecten pecten Lightfoot, 1786 - Philippines, 131mm - the well-known Venus-Comb Murex. Ref.:
NAQUETIA Jousseaume, 1880   
Naquetia Jousseaume, 1880; Naquetia; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 76; Houart, 1994: 51; Triplex Humphrey in Harris, 1897 (non Perry, 1810); Rhizophorimurex Oyama, 1950; Pterynotus (Naquetia); Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae].
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.140.
Naquetia annandaleiNaquetia barclayi (Reeve, 1858), form: annandalei (Preston, 1910) - Philippines, 77-78mm - typical coloring. Rare colorforms include yellow and orange. Found from India east through the Philippines. Ref.: Naquetia barclayiNaquetia barclayi (Reeve, 1858) - Mozambique, 68mm - outstanding and unique color form; extremely rare. Limited to the western Indian Ocean. Ref.:
Naquetia cumingii jickeliiNaquetia cumingii (A.Adams, 1853), form: jickelii (Tapparone Canefri, 1875) - Madagascar, 48mm - also found in the Red Sea. Ref.: Naquetia fosteriNaquetia fosteri D'Attilio & Hertz, 1987 - Israel, 88mm - taken scuba diving in 20-30 meters of water. Rare endemic limited to the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea. Ref.: Naquetia trigonulusNaquetia trigonulus (Lamarck, 1816) - Philippines, 48-54mm - Western Pacific distribution. Ref.:
POIRIERIA Jousseaume, 1880   
Poirieria Jousseaume, 1880; Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricinae]; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae] Poirrieria Fischer, 1884 (err.);  Subgenus: FLEXOPTERON Shuto, 1969 (Living fossil), Poirieria (Flexopteron); Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricinae]; Houart, 1994: 80; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae].  Subgenus: PANAMUREX Woodring, 1959, Poirieria (Panamurex); Houart, 1994: 50; Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricinae].  Subgenus: PAZIELLA Jousseaume, 1880, Bathymurex Clench & Farfante, 1945; Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricinae]; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae], Dallimurex Rehder, 1946.  Subgenus: PAZINOTUS E. H. Vokes, 1970; Poiriera (Pazinotus); Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricinae]; Houart, 1994: 35.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.140.
Pazinotus bodartiPoirieria (Pazinotus) bodarti (P.M. Costa, 1993) - Brazil, 6mm - collected in scuba diving depths. Ref.: Poirieria hemmenorumPoirieria hemmenorum Houart & Mülhlhäusser, 1990 - Somalia, 24mm - trawled in deepwater. A rare species that is almost always found dead-taken. Ref.:
PTERYNOTUS Swainson, 1833   
Pterynotus Swainson, 1833. Type species (o.d.): Murex pinnatus Swainson, 1822; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 79; Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricinae]; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae]; Le Renard, 1996: 67; Houart, 1996: 107; Pterymurex Rovereto, 1899 pro Pteronotus Swainson, 1833 (non Rafinesque, 1815); Pteronotus Swainson, 1833 (non Rafinesque, 1815); Marchia Jousseaume, 1880; Morchia Baker, 1891 (err.); Triplex Newton, 1891 ? (non Perry, 1810).  Subgenus: PTERYNOTUS s.s. Pterynotus (Pterynotus); Merle, 1994: 85; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae].   Subgenus: PTEROCHELUS Jousseaume, 1880; Pterynotus (Pterochelus); Houart, 1994: 29; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricinae]; Alipurpura P. Fischer, 1884.  Subgenus: TIMBELLUS de Gregorio, 1885.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.140.
Pterynotus bednalliPterynotus bednalli (Brazier, 1878) - Australia, 70mm - found in Darwin Harbour, North Territory. One of the more beautiful and sought-after Muricid species. Found in a variety of color forms. Ref.: Pterynotus bednalliPterynotus bednalli (Brazier, 1878) - Australia, 35-45mm - A striking and rare color series, including deep orange, pink and pure white specimens. Ref.:
Pterynotus bibbeyiPterynotus bibbeyi Radwin & D'Attilio, 1976 - Philippines, 42mm - sometimes confused with P. aparrii, which has bifurcated fronds. Ref.: Pterynotus lauraePterynotus laurae Houart, 1997 - Philippines, 38-47mm - typically brown in color; white is rare. Found in the Sulu Sea. Similar to P. albobrunneus. Ref.: Pterynotus loebbeckeiPterynotus loebbeckei (Kobelt, 1879) - Philippines, 50mm - a broadly fronded specimen that is almost as wide as its length. Ref.:
Pterynotus martinetanaPterynotus martinetana (Röding, 1798) - Japan, 39mm - taken scuba diving in ± 80 feet of water off Okinawa. Ref.:    
Subfamily: MURICOPSINAE back to menutop of page
FAVARTIA Jousseaume, 1880   
Favartia Jousseaume, 1880. Type species (o.d.): Murex breviculus Sowerby, 1834; Tröndle & Houart, 1992: 83 Minnimurex Woolacott, 1957.  Subgenus: CARIBIELLA Perrilliat, 1972; Caribiella Perrilliat, 1972: 82. Type species (o.d.): Murex intermedius C. B. Adams, 1850 [= Murex alveata Kiener, 1842]; Houart, 1994: 8; Favartia (Caribiella); Houart, 1994: 82.  Subgenus: FAVARTIA s.s. Favartia (Favartia); Houart, 1994: 39.  Subgenus: PYGMAEPTERYS E. H. Vokes, 1978; Pygmaepterys Vokes, 1978: 398. Type species (o.d.): Murex alfredensis Bartsch, 1915; Houart, 1994: 8; Favartia (Pygmaepterys); Houart, 1994: 28.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.141.
Favartia brevicula robertsoniFavartia brevicula robertsoni D'Attilio & Myers, 1986 - Solomon Islands, 22mm - taken scuba diving in 30 feet of water at Mbanika Island, Russell Group, Solomons. Differs from F. brevicula (Sowerby,1834) by consistently having an extended blunt shoulder spine on the varices in mature shells. Locality records only exist for the Solomon Islands. Ref.: Favartia funafutiensisFavartia funafutiensis (Hedley, 1899) - Christmas Id., Line Islands, 7.3mm - taken scuba diving in ±40 feet of water buried in rubble rock. The species is named for the type locality, Funafuti Atoll. It is a rather rare species. Ref.:
Favartia paulboschiFavartia paulboschi Smythe & Houart, 1984 - Oman, 18mm - endemic to the Arabian Gulf coast of Oman. Found intertidally, clinging to the underside of a rock. Uncommon due to its less frequented locale. Ref.: Favartia pelepiliFavartia pelepili D'Attilio & Bertsch, 1980 - Philippines, 29mm - this specimen exhibits superior fronding. The fronding tends to be quite variable. Ref.:  
MURICOPSIS Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus, 1882   
Muricopsis Bucquoy & Dautzenberg, & Dollfus, 1882. Type species (o.d.): Muricopsis blainvillei Payraudeau, 1826; Vaught, 1989: 43 [Muricopsinae]; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Muricopsinae]; Le Renard, 1996: 66; Muricidea auctt.(non Swainson, 1840); Jania Bellardi in Cossmann, 1882 (non Bellardi).  Subgenus: MURICOPSIS s.s. Muricopsis (Muricopsis); Houart & Abreu, 1994: 121.  Subgenus: RISOMUREX Olsson & McGinty, 1958; Risomurex Olsson & McGinty, 1958. Type species (ICZN opinion 1623 (1991)): Ricinula deformis Reeve, 1846; Muricopsis (Risomurex); Vokes & Houart, 1986: 88,89; Rolán & Fernandes, 1991: 11-20; Houart, 1994; Houart, 1996: 18.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.141.
Muricopsis octogonusMuricopsis octogonus (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833) - New Zealand, 49mm - taken scuba diving in 22 meters of water. Intertidal specimens tend to have poorly developed spines; longer spines on deepwater specimens. A synonym is Murexsul octogonus. Ref.:  
Subfamily: OCENEBRINAE back to menutop of page
PTEROPURPURA Jousseaume, 1880   
Pteropurpura Jousseaume, 1880; Centrifuga Grant & Gale, 1931.  Subgenus: CALCITRAPESSA Berry, 1959.  Subgenus: OCINEBRELLUS Jousseaume, 1880; Ocenebrellus Cossmann, 1903 (err.); Ternaria Coen, 1943.  Subgenus: POROPTERON Jousseaume, 1880; Poropteron Jousseaume, 1880. Type species (s.d. Jousseaume, 1881) Murex uncinarius Lamarck, 1822; Pteropurpura (Poropteron); Houart, 1994: 43.  Subgenus: PTEROPURPURA s.s.; Pteropurpura (Pteropurpura); Houart, 1994: 34.  Subgenus: SHASKYUS Burch & Campbell, 1963.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.142.
Pteropurpura transkeianaPteropurpura (Poropteron) transkeiana Houart, 1991 - South Africa, 26mm - one of five similar species in the subgenus Poropteron in South Africa. It differs from P. debruini by lacking webbing between the longer spines and teeth inside the lip of the aperture. Ref.: Pteropurpura trialataPteropurpura trialata (Sowerby, 1834) - California, 83-85mm - taken scuba diving. The species exhibits varied frond development. Ref.:
Subfamily: ERGALATAXINAE back to menutop of page
ORANIA Pallary, 1900   
Orania Pallary, 1900; Vaught, 1989: 44; Houart & Abreu, 1994: 122; Houart, 1994: 74; Le Renard, 1996: 68 Nemofusus Cossmann, 1903.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.143.
Orania grayiOrania grayi (Dall, 1889) - Canary Islands, 15-16mm - this species was originally described by William Healy Dall as a Nassarina, a genus in the Family Columbellidae. The species was reclassified in the Muricidae after radular examination. A tropical species found on both sides of the Atlantic. The type locality is Barbados. Synonym is Evokesia grayi (re: Malacolog). Ref.:  
Subfamily: TYPHINAE back to menutop of page
TYPHIS Montfort, 1810   
Typhis Montfort, 1810.; Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae]; Houart & Abreu, 1994: 124; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Typhinae].  Subgenus: TYPHIS s.s. Typhis (Typhis); Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Typhinae].  Subgenus: HAUSTELLOTYPHIS Jousseaume, 1880; Typhis (Haustellotyphis); Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae].  Subgenus: HIRTOTYPHIS Jousseaume, 1880; Typhis (Hirtotyphis); Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae]; Houart, 1994: 24.  Subgenus: RUGOTYPHIS Vella, 1961; Typhis (Rugotyphis); Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae].  Subgenus: TALITYPHIS Jousseaume, 1882; Typhis (Talityphis); Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae]; Houart, 1994: 38.  Subgenus: TYPHINA Jousseaume, 1880; Typhina Jousseaume, 1880. Type species (o.d.): Typhis belcheri Broderip, 1833; Typhis (Typhina); Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae]; Houart, 1994: 38; Houart, 1991: 75; Houart, 1994: 38; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Typhinae].  Subgenus: TYPHISOPSIS Jousseaume, 1880; Typhis (Typhinopsis); Vaught, 1989: 44 [Typhinae].
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.143.
Typhis expansusTyphis (Talityphis) expansus Sowerby II, 1874 - Colombia, 36.2mm - an extraordinary chocolate-brown specimen with two long tubes extending from body whorl. Trawled by fishing boat. Talityphis perchardei Radwin & D'Attilio, 1976 is a synonym. (re: Malacolog). Ref.:  
Subfamily: TROPHONINAE back to menutop of page
TROPHON Montfort, 1810   
Trophon, Montfort, 1810; Vaught, 1989: 44 [Trophoninae]; Pacaud & Le Renard, 1995: 164 [Trophoninae]; Le Renard, 1996: 67; Polyplex Perry, 1810 (Suppr.); Pagodula Monterosato, 1884; Vaught, 1989: 44; Pinon de Gregorio, 1885; Enixotrophon Iredale, 1929; Boreotrophon Fischer P., 1884; Vaught, 1989: 44; Houart, 1994: 30; Le Renard, 1996: 67; Nodulotrophon Habe & Ito, 1965; Muricidea Swainson, 1840.
Ref.: Millard, V. 1997. Classification of the Mollusca. p.144.
Boreotrophon bentleyiBoreotrophon bentleyi (Dall, 1908) - Washington (State), 23mm - a uniquely shaped deep water inhabitat of the United States west coast. This specimen was dredged from 180 meters of water. The species is quite rare. Ref.: Boreotrophon candelabrumBoreotrophon candelabrum (Reeve, 1848) - Russia, 48mm - an uncommon species, one of the more beautiful of the genus. From a remote locale north of Vladivostok. Found by scuba diver inside of shipwreck. Ref.:
Boreotrophon cepulusBoreotrophon cepulus (Sowerby, 1880) - Alaska, 30-34mm - dredged in 95 meters of water off Tanaga Island, in the Aleutian Islands. A very uncommon species. Ref.: Boreotrophon orpheusBoreotrophon orpheus (Gould, 1849) - Washington (State), 20mm - resembles a small B. stuarti. Specimens as large as 25mm are infrequently taken scuba diving, or dredging down to 80 fathoms of water. This shell was collected while scuba diving along a rock wall in ±19 meters of water in the San Juan Islands. Ref.: Boreotrophon scitulusBoreotrophon scitulus Dall, 1891 - Alaska, 30-31mm - dredged in ± 165 meters of water off Attu Island, Aleutian Islands. An extremely rare species. Ref.:
Coronium coronatumCoronium coronatum Penna-Neme & Leme, 1978 - Brazil, 65.7mm - originally described as a Fulgurofusus in the family Turbinellidae. Ref.: Enixotrophon obtusiliratumEnixotrophon obtusiliratum (Schepman, 1911) - Australia, 41mm - a deep water species trawled in ± 750 meters of water along the continental shelf off New South Wales. Ref.: Fuegotrophon pallidusFuegotrophon pallidus (King & Broderip, 1832) - Argentina, 11mm - dredged in 30 meters of water off Tierra del Fuego Province. The genus Fuegotrophon is sometimes combined in synonymy with Trophon - some taxanomic discrepancies appear in various publications. Most recently designated as Trophon pallidus (Broderip, 1833). (re: Malacolog). Ref.:
Scabrotrophon grovesiScabrotrophon grovesi McLean, 1995 - California, 20mm - dredged in ± 200 meters of water. Scabrotrophon is a recently described genus with five species restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. Ref.: Trophon cerrosensis catalinensisTrophon cerrosensis catalinensis Oldroyd, 1927 - California, 55-58mm - dredged off Catalina Island in about 92 meters of water. One of the great Trophon rarities. Ref.:  
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